אלה פקודי המשכן
אלה פקודי המשכן משכן העדות אשר פקד על פי משה עבדת הלוים ביד איתמר בן אהרן הכהן. ובצלאל בן אורי בן חור למטה יהודה עשה את כל אשר צוה ה' את משה. ואתו אהליאב בן אחיסמך למטה דן חרש וחשב ורקם בתכלת ובארגמן ובתולעת השני ובשש
These are the reckonings of the Tabernacle, the Tabernacle of Testimony, which were reckoned at Moses’ bidding. The labor of the Levites was under the authority of Issamar, son of Aaron the Kohen. Betzalel, son of Uri son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah, did everything that Hashem had commanded Moses. With him was Oholiab, son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, a carver, weaver, and embroiderer, with turquoise, purple, and scarlet wool, and with linen.
Says the Medrash:
“These are the reckonings of the Tabernacle…” Said R’ Yaakov son of R’ Assi: why does the verse state “Hashem, I love the House where You dwell, and the place where Your glory resides”? Because it [the House] is equal to the creation of the world. How so? [Regarding] the first day [of creation] it says “In the beginning of G-d’s creating the heavens and the earth” and it states “stretching out the heavens like a curtain” and [regarding] the Mishkan it says “you shall make curtains of goat hair.” [Regarding] the second day [of creation] it says “let there be a firmament” for the purpose of separating between the waters beneath the firmament and the waters above the firmament and in the Mishkan it says “the Partition shall separate for you between the Holy and Holy of Holies.” [Regarding the third day [of creation] it mentions water, as it says “let the waters…be gathered” and in the Mishkan it says “You shall make a copper laver and its base of copper…and put water there.” On the fourth day [of creation He] created luminaries as it says “let there be luminaries in the firmament of the heavens” and in the Mishkan is says “You shall make a Menorah of pure gold.” On the fifth day [of creation He] created the fowl as it says “let the waters teem with teeming living creatures, and fowl that fly” and in the Mishkan sacrifices were brought from sheep and fowl [and in the Mishkan it says] “the Cherubim shall be with wings spread upward” On the sixth day [of creation] man was created as it says “So G-d created Man in his image” in the glory of his creator and in the Mishkan it says “men” referring to the High Priest who was anointed to work and serve in front of G-d. On the seventh day [of creation it says] “Thus the heaven and the earth were finished” and in the Mishkan it says “All the work [of the Tabernacle] was completed.” In the creation of the world is says “G-d blessed” and in the Mishkan it says “And Moshe blessed them.” In the creation of the world it says “G-d completed” and in the Mishkan it says “it was on the day that Moshe finished.” In the creation of the world it says “and He sanctified it.” And in the Mishkan it says “and he anointed it and sanctified it.” Why is the Mishkan equal to [the creation of] heaven and earth? To teach us that just as heaven and earth are witnessed for Bnei Yisrael as it says “I call heaven and earth today to bear witness against you,” so too the Mishkan bears testimony for Bnei Yisrael as it says “These are the reckonings of the Tabernacle, the Tabernacle of Testimony.” Therefore is says “O Hashem, I love the house where You dwell, and the place where your Glory resides.”
From the words of this Medrash we see that the details of the Mishkan correspond to the details of the creation of the world. The Mishkan is the world in miniature, a microcosmic representation of the world. Thus, we can infer that just like the world is eternal so too is the Mishkan. Indeed, the Mishkan which Bnei Yisrael made in the Wilderness was made for temporary use and yet it is eternal; no strangers ever took control of it and it never fell into the hands of our enemies. The Mishkan and its vessels are a testimony to Bnei Yisrael now, as it was back then.
The Seforno writes
The Tabernacle of Testimony: Our passuk tells us the virtues of this Mishkan because of which it was worthy of being eternal and never falling into the hands of their enemies. Firstly, משכן העדות, it is the “Tabernacle of Testimony”; the Two Tablets of Testimony are housed in it. Second, אשר פקד על פי משה, “which were reckoned at Moses’ bidding.” Third,ביד איתמר , “the labor of Levites was under the authority of Issamar,” for all the shifts of the Mishkan were under the auspices of Issamar. Fourth, ובצלאל בן אורי בן חור למטה יהודה עשה, “Betzalel son of Uri son of Hur of the tribe of Judah did [it].” The heads of the artisans in charge of making the Mishkan and its vessels were the distinguished and the righteous of the generation, and so the Divine Presence dwelled in that which their hands created, preventing it from falling into the hands of the enemies. But the Temple which Solomon built, where the workers who built it were from Tyre, was different. Even though the Divine Presence dwelled in it, parts of it were damaged and it was necessary to repair the deterioration of the Temple; and in the end everything fell into the hands of their enemies. The second Temple, where none of the above virtues were present, was even worse: the Divine Presence wasn’t even there and it fell into the hands of their enemies. It was not a Tabernacle of Testimony because the Tablets were not housed in it. It wasn’t reckoned by anyone except Cyrus and the Levites weren’t there, as Ezra himself says ואבינה בעם ובכהנים ומבני לוי לא מצאתי שם, “I then scrutinized the people and the Kohanim, but I could find no Levites there.” Those who built it were from Sidon and Tyre, as is mentioned in the Book of Ezra.
The Mishkan which Moshe made was constructed by the chosen of the generation and therefore no foreign legion ever took hold of it, for foreigners were not able to lay a hand on that which was consecrated. But the Mikdash which Shlomo built had craftsmen who had been sent from Hiram king of Tyre. Even though the construction of the Mikdash was done in holiness, these gentile craftsmen had no way of knowing the secret of G-d’s resting His Presnece in His House of Cedars. Thus the number of days during which G-d would dwell in the House were limited, and once those days were up, the foundations of the house—as though they themselves decided to do so—became unstable. G-d’s Divine Presence is dependent on the heart, on our love for Him, our pining for Him, by truthfully asking Him to dwell among us.
"ויברך אותם משה", and Moshe blessed them. He said to them “may it be G-d’s will that the Shechina rest in the works of your hands. May the pleasantness of my Lord, our G-d, be upon us, and [make] the work of our hands, etc.” This is one of the eleven songs of the series that begins “A prayer by Moshe” and continues until the psalm that begins, “A song of David: Kindness and justice…”
The Medrash states, 
In the future all the nations of the world will gather all the silver and gold in the world and build a House for G-d. And G-d will mock them and will not desire any house but the house that Bnei Yisrael built for him, as the passuk statesאם יתן איש את כל הון ביתו באהבה בוז יבוזו לו , “were any man to offer all the treasure of his home to entice you away from your love they would scorn him to extreme.”
This Medrash warrants explanation: why would G-d not want the house offered by the nations of the world—after all it will be more glorious than its predecessors?
We can answer this with what the Ramban writes:
The esoteric significance of the Mishkan is that the Glory that rested upon Mount Sinai at the time of the giving of the Torah should rest upon [the Tabernacle], but unlike at Sinai, in a concealed manner. And note that just as it is written there, regarding Mount Sinai, “the glory of Hashem upon Mount Sinai” and it is further written “Behold, Hashem our G-d has shown us His glory and His greatness,” so too here regarding the Tabernacle, it is written, “and the glory of Hashem filled the Tabernacle.” Furthermore, regarding the Tabernacle it says Twice, “and the glory of Hashem filled the Tabernacle,” parallel to the two expressions “His glory and His greatness” mentioned at Mount Sinai. Thus the glory that originally appeared to [the people] at Mount Sinai remained constantly with Bnei Yisrael in the Tabernacle and whenever Moshe entered [the Tabernacle], he would receive the same level of Divine communication that was spoken to him at Mount Sinai. And just as [Scripture] said regarding the Giving of the Torah: “from heaven He caused you to hear His voice in order to teach you, and on earth He showed you His great fire” so too regarding the Tabernacle it is written, “he heard the voice speaking to him from atop the Cover…from between the two Cherubim; and He spoke to him.” The words “and he spoke to him” are repeated at the end of that verse in order to convey what [the Sages] said through a tradition, that the Voice would come from heaven to above the Ark- cover and speak to [Moshe] from there. For every communication with Moshe originated in heaven during the day and was heard by Moshe as though it was emanating from between the two Cherubim. This too was in a manner similar to the Giving of the Torah, of which it is written, “and you heard His words from the midst of the fire.” This is why [the Cherubim] were both made of gold. Scripture likewise states, “at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, before Hashem; where I shall set My meeting with you to speak to you there…, and it shall be sanctified with My glory.” For that was to be the meeting place for communication and it would “be sanctified by My glory.” One who examines carefully the verses written at the Giving of the Torah and understand what I wrote above, will understand the esoteric significance of the Mishkan and the Beis HaMikdash.
Hence, not everyone wishing to partake in the construction of the Mishkan could do so. The masses could not join in the making of the Mishkan lest they damage it. Only Moshe and Betzalel were able to do so. As the Ba’al HaTurim writes,
Betzalel made the Ark: In [the making of] all [the vessels] it does not mention Betzalel’s name except for [the making of] Ark, to teach that Betzalel knew the secret of the Ark and the Merkava, for the Ark parallels G-d’s Throne.
On the other hand, we find that the Ramban writes:
And so [the Sages] said in Medrash Rabbah: “why with regard to all the other vessels of the Tabernacle is it written ‘you [singular] shall make’ while regarding the Ark it is written ‘they shall make an Ark’? Rabbi Yehuda Bar Shallum said: the Holy One, Blessed is He, said, ‘let everyone come and be involved in the making of the Ark, so that they may merit having a connection to the Torah.’” The connection that the Medrash mentions regarding the Ark is either that each person should donate one gold article for use in making the Ark, or that he render some small assistance to Betzalel, or that they participate mentally and direct their thoughts to the matter.
The Ark of Testimony is loftier than the other vessels of the Mishkan—“let everyone come and be involved in the making of the Ark.” But how do they become involved? “That each person should donate one gold article for use in making the Ark, or that he render some small assistance to Betzalel, or that they participate mentally and direct their thoughts to the matter.”
Betzalel opened the doorway to holiness, to the secrets of the Merkava and when they made the Ark they tapped into Betzalel’s thoughts and intentions. Hence, "ועשו ארון", they shall make an Ark,” is in plural. This is to teach us that the main point of the work in the Mishkan and its vessels were its hidden intentions and a purity of heart, and only through this will the Shechina dwell in the Mishkan. This is what David HaMelech referred to when he wished to build the Beis HaMikdash. "וידעתי אלוקי כי אתה בחן לבב ומישרים תרצה אני בישר לבבי התנדבתי כל אלה ועתה עמך הנמצא פה ראיתי בשמחה להתנדב לך" I know, my G-d, that You examine the heart and desire in integrity. I have offered all these donations in the uprightness of my heard, and now I see Your people, who are present here, to offer donations to You with gladness.
Building the Mikdash is like creating a microcosmic world. This is what our Sages refer to when they say, regarding Betzalel’s wisdom.
Said Rav Yehuda in the name of Rav: Betzalel knew how to join the letters with which heaven and earth were created. For it is written here, regarding Betzalel, “He filled him with G-dly spirit, with wisdom, with understanding and with knowledge” and it is written there, regarding the Creation: “Hashem founded the earth with wisdom; He established the heavens with understanding,” and it is written in the next verse: “Through His knowledge the depths were cleaved.”
To direct one’s thoughts means to join letters as G-d did when He created the world to be ready for Him to reveal himself. Building the House is hidden and sublime, dependent on the feelings in the heart, the purity of mind, the secret of G-dly thought. Thus the Zohar states,
The lower world [this world] was not complete in its existence till Avraham came and the world existed [because of him], but [it] was not complete... Yitzchak came and held the world in his left hand and the world was sustained further. When Yaakov came he held the middle [of the world] ואתכליל on both sides. The world now existed and would not collapse. Despite all this, the world was not complete until Bnei Yisrael accepted the Torah at Har Sinai and the Mishkan was erected. Only then did the worlds [upper and lower] exist and become complete.
With the creation of the Mishkan, Creation was completed. G-d established a world in which the Shechina can dwell. The G-dly desire was fulfilled the day that Moshe erected the Mishkan.
We can now understand the words of our Sages
R’ Shmuel bar Nachmani said in the name of R’ Yonasan: Betzalel [which can be read b’tzel El, namely, “in the shadow of G-d”] was so named on account of his wisdom, which was demonstrated in the following incident: When the Holy One, Blessed is He, said to Moshe, “Go and tell Betzalel to make me a Tabernacle, Ark and vessels” Moshe went and reversed the order and said to Betzalel “Make an Ark, vessels and a Tabernacle.” Betzalel said to him: “Moshe, our teacher! The practice of the world is that first a person builds a house and then he brings vessels into it. But you say ‘make for me an Ark, vessels and then a Tabernacle.’ Into what shall I put the vessels that I make? Perhaps the Holy One, Blessed is He, said to you as follows : ‘make a Tabernacle, and then an Ark and vessels’?” Moshe said to him: “Perhaps you were in the shadow of G-d [B’tzel, El] and that is how you knew this.”
The question is clear: why was Moshe so amazed by Betzalel’s answer? It is only logical that one first builds a house and then makes the articles that go inside it. But what impressed Moshe was that Betzalel said "מנהגו של עולם", the practice of the world. Betzalel did not learn this from the builders and carpenters alone, rather from the creation of the world. Moshe Rabbeinu understood the depths of Betzalel’s thought process, that building the Mishkan is like creating the world. What Betzalel meant was that this was G-d’s practice when He created the world: first he created the world and only then created the animals and people. This is also how the Mishkan must be. This is truly the knowledge of someone who was בצל א-ל, in the shadow of G-d, someone who knows that the Mishkan parallels the creation of the world. Since Betzalel knew this secret, he was fitting and deserving of working on the Mishkan, because he knew how to join the letters with which heaven and earth were created.
It is imperative that we know—the Mishkan did not fall into the hands of our enemies. Its power did not cease; it is still in our hands. The toiling in Torah represented by the Ark; the light of our faith which glows from the Menorah; our tables which resemble the show bread; the ramp of the altar which was built instead of steps; which alludes to the caution a person must exercise concerning the honor of his friend lest he embarrass him; the coat with bells on the fringe which were heard when the kohen entered the Mikdash, which parallels sins committed with the voice; the breastplate which parallels judgment; and the tzitz which atones for brazenness. The Mishkan of Moshe no strangers ever took hold of. It endures still. As the Medrash states,
Speak to the Children of Israel and let them take for Me a portion. Everything about which G-d said לי, “for Me,” endures in this world and in the next. How so? The verse states “The land shall not be sold in perpetuity for the entire land is for Me,” in this world and in the next. “For Me is every first born” in this world and in the next. “And the Levites are for Me” in this world and in the next. Bnei Yisrael, as it says “And you shall be for me a kingdom of ministers and a holy nation.” In this world and in the next. “And let them take for Me” in this world and the next.
These are the reckonings of the Tabernalce, the Tabernacle of Testimony. What is the testimony? That as long as Bnei Yisrael are busy with Torah study and the sacrifices, it serves as a testimony that they will not descend to Gehinom. As we said above, this is what we mean by the Mishkan still being here—so long as Bnei Yisrael are busy with Torah, doing what they are supposed to, the Mishkan endures.
יהי רצון שתתלבש ברחמיך
May it be Your will that You gird Yourself in mercy
Rav Shimshon of Ostropolye expounds on the passuk "ובפשעכם שלחה אמכם" and it has been for your rebellious sins that your mother has been sent away. He explains that when the Beis HaMikdash was standing and the Kohanim did their service of bringing daily sacrifices, G-d too, so to speak, brought sacrifices to atone for Bnei Yisrael, in the Beis HaMikdash in heaven. When G-d destroyed the Beis HaMikdash, He threw the בגדי כהונה, the clothing of the priests, down to earth. So long as the Mikdash was standing, G-d donned the בגדי כהונה in heaven and brought sacrifices. But with the sins of Bnei Yisrael came the destruction of the Beis HaMikdash, and שלחה אמכם, your mother has been sent away. אמכם is an acronym for אבנט, the belt, מכנסים, the breeches,כתנת, the tunic, and מגבעת, the headdress—all the clothes of the priests.
Based on the above, we can explain the prayer which R’ Yochanan would add after davening. "יהי רצון... ותתלבש ברחמיך, ותתכסה בעזך ותתעטף בחסידותך ותתאזר בחנינותך" may it be Your will…and attire Yourself with Your Attribute of Mercy and cover Yourself with Your Attribute of Strength, and wrap Yourself in Your Attribute of Kindness, and gird Yourself with Your graciousness. R’ Yochanan would daven that G-d once again don the clothes of the Priests and rebuild His house. Thus he prayed, May it be Your will… ותתלבש ברחמיך attire Yourself with Your Attribute of Mercy, referring to the כתונת, the tunic, regarding which the Torah uses terms of לבישה, donning, as it says, "כתונת בד קדש ילבש", He shall don a sacred linen Tunic; תתכסה בעזך cover Yourself with Your Attribute of Strength, referring to the breeches, as the passuk states "ועשה להם מכנסי בד לכסות בשר ערוה" You shall make for them linen breeches to cover the flesh of nakedness. תתעטף בחסידותך wrap Yourself in Your Attribute of Kindness, referring to the headdress, for עיטוף is the covering of one’s head as is found in the halachos of bentching; ותתאזר בחנינותיך and gird Yourself with Your graciousness referring to the אבנט, the belt, because the term אזור refers to a belt as the passuk states "ואזור עור אזור במתניו", with a leather belt girded on his waist.
Thus R’ Yochanan prayed that may G-d raise Bnei Yisrael’s crown of glory from the dust of exile, attire Himself with His Attribute of Mercy, cover Himself with His Attribute of Strength, wrap Himself with His Attribute of Kindness, gird Himself with His graciousness and desire once more the rebuilding of His Beis HaMikdash with the Kohanim returning to their service and Bnei Yisrael returning to their stands.
For Glory and for Splendor
It is commonly thought that the terms כבוד, glory, and תפארת, splendor, are synonymous. Yet, as the Chassam Sofer explains these two terms are not only not synonymous but are in fact antonymous. כבוד denotes greatness and elevation, while תפארת is rooted in humility, as we see with Yaakov whose predominant characteristic is תפארת and utmost humility; he is the one who stated "קטנתי מכל החסדים...אשר עשית את עבדך", I have been diminished by all the kindnesses…that you have done Your servant.
We’ve explained numerous times that even though the Beis HaMikdash is no longer around and the mitzvos of the Mikdash ceased with its destruction and cannot be performed nowadays, nevertheless the internal principles they represent are still relevant today, for the Torah is eternal.
The same is true of the בגדי כהונה, the clothing of the Kohanim, that were made לכבוד ולתפארת, for glory and for splendor. For although the clothing of the Kohanim are not around today, the בגדי כהונה of Bnei Yisrael, who are also described as ממלכת כהנים וגוי קדוש, a kingdom of priests and a holy nation, are still in existence. This is manifest in the two mitzvos which we wear, namely, tefillin and tzitzis. The tefillin are for כבוד, as the passuk states "פארך חבוש עליך", don your headgear upon yourself. This is why an אבל, someone in mourning, is exempt from donning tefillin, because he is rolling in dust and not in glory. Tzitzis, on the other hand, are called חותם של טיט, a clay seal. The Tosafos there explain that tzitzis resemble the mark they would use to mark a slave. Tzitzis are the mark on Bnei Yisrael; they testify that Bnei Yisrael are the servants of G-d. Thus, we see that tzitzis represent servitude and humility while the tefillin represent royal glory. The two together are לכבוד ולתפארת, the special priestly garments of a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.
The mitzvah of tzitzis is not an obligatory mitzvah in itself, rather is only incumbent upon someone who has a four-cornered garment; without one, he doesn’t, he is exempt. At first glance, this seems strange for tzitzis is equal to all the other mitzvos in the Torah. Why, then, is it not a mitzvah incumbent upon us? It seems that the reason it isn’t forced upon us is because tzitzis, as mentioned above, is the mark of slavery, a sign of servitude. Therefore, we have to accept it upon ourselves with love—it is not something that can be forced upon us—for the whole purpose of Bnei Yisrael’s servitude to G-d is that it is self-appointed, with joy and love.
The Tabernacle of Testimony
The details of the Mishkan, the commandment to build it and its construction, are written about quite extensively—in the parshiyos of Teruma and Tetzaveh before חטא העגל, the sin of the Golden Calf, and again after in the parshiyos of Vayakhel and Pikudei. Why is this repetition necessary?
We can answer this with the following parable: a father has a well-mannered, diligent son who brings him much nachas. The father buys his son a precious gift, but before he has a chance to give it to him he hears from the son’s teacher, much to his chagrin, that the boy is not behaving properly and that he is no longer as studious as he used to be. The father says to the teacher, “how unfortunate this is—I had been intending to give him this precious gift!” The teacher told the father not to worry, that the gift can be used to help the boy improve and set him back on the right track. The gift can be given to the boy on the condition that he repents.
So too was it between G-d and the Jewish people. G-d wanted to dwell among the Jews even before they committed the sin of the Golden Calf. But after they sinned, the commandment to construct the Mishkan, and G-d dwelling among them, served as proof that He had forgiven them. Hence it is calledמשכן העדות , a Mishkan of testimony, for it testifies that G-d forgave them. Furthermore, G-d made a condition with them that if they did not follow His ways, the Mikdash would be destroyed because of their sins.
Although the Mishkan indicates that G-d forgave them for חטא העגל, the forgiveness was not complete. G-d said "וביום פקדי ופקדתי עליהם חטאתם", on the day that I make My account, I shall bring their sin to account against them. As Rashi explains, there is no calamity that befalls the Jewish people that does not contain something in it to atone for the sin of the Golden Calf.
Additionally, the passuk states "אלה פקודי המשכן משכן העדות", these are the reckonings of the Tabernacle, the Tabernacle of Testimony. Rashi explains that the word Mishkan is mentioned twice to allude to the two Mishkanos שנתמשכנו בעונותיהם של ישראל, that were taken as collateral because of Bnei Yisrael’s sins. There is a play on the word משכן, Tabernacle, to be read as משכן, collateral. But were the two Temples really taken as collateral? They were destroyed! Rather, it seems to reason that G-d took the two Temples as a משכון, collateral for the debt incurred by Bnei Yisrael’s sins. We see G-d’s mercy in this, namely that He did not force Bnei Yisrael to pay for their sins immediately but rather took collateral—the two Temples—and poured His wrath on an inanimate object rather than on His beloved children. He keeps that collateral till we pay back the debt of our sins, and when we merit paying up that debt, G-d will once again return that משכון, may He do so speedily in our days.
 שמות ל"ח: כ"א-כ"ג
 תנחומא פקודי ב'
 תהלים כ"ו: ח'
 בראשית א': א'
 תהלים ק"ד: ??
 שמות כ"ו:ז'
 בראשית א': ו'
 שמות כ"ו: ל"ג
בראשית א': ט'
 שמות ל': י"ח
 בראשית א': י"ד
 שמות כ"ה: ל"א
 בראשית א': כ'
 שמות כ"ה: כ'
 בראשית א': כ"ז
 SOURCE FOR THIS?
 שמות ל"ט: ל"ב
 במדבר ז': א'
 דברים ל': י"ט
 שמות ל"ח: כ"א
 תהלים כ"ו: ח'
 שמות ל"ח: כ"א
 עזרא ח': ט"ו
 שמות ל"ט: מ"ג
 מדרש שיר השירים
 שיר השירים ח': ז'
 שמות כ"ה: א'
 שמות כ"ד: ט"ז
 דברים ה': כ"א
 שמות מ': ל"ד
 דברים ה': כ"א
 דברים ד': ל"ו
 במדבר ז': פ"ט
 במדבר רבה י"ד: כ"ב
 דברים ד': ל"ו
 שמות כ"ט: מ"ב-מ"ג
 שמות ל"ז: א'
 G-d’s Chariot
 שמות כ"ה: י'
 שמות רבה ל"ד: ב'
 G-d’s Chariot
 דברי הימים כ"ט: י"ז
 Do I need a source? Gemara says it’s the next verse.
 זוהר חלק ג': דף קי"ז
 ברכות נ"ה: א'
 תנחומא פרשת תרומה ??:??
 ויקרא כ"ה: כ"ג
במדבר ג': י"ג
 במדבר ח': י"ד
 שמות י"ט: ו'
 שמות רבה נ"א: ז'
ברכות ט"ז ע"ב
 See ברכות נ"א ע"א
 מלכים ב' א': ח'
 Rabbi Yechiel Heller writes similarly in שו"ת עמודי אור
 תורת משה, פרשת תצוה
 בראשית ל"ב: י"א
 See comments on פרשת תרומה, "ועשו לי מקדש" with regard to the essence of each of the vessels in the Mikdash and what each one teaches us.
 יחזקאל כ"ד: י"ז
 See כתובות ו' ע"ב, מועד קטן כ"א ע"א, and שו"ע או"ח סי' ל"ח סעיף ה'
 מנחות מ"ג ע"ב
 ד"ה חותם
 See comments on פרשת יתרו "הקדימו נעשה לנשמע"
 See the Ramban on פרשת תצוה כ"ט: מ"ו where he explains that the service in the Temple was a צורך גבוה, a divine want, not just a fulfillment of a human need.
 As stated in Rashi at the beginning of פרשת פקודי.
 שמות ל"ב: ל"ד
 Rashi, ibid.